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Tuesday, 3 February 2015

Lord Krishna on Vedas and Vaidik Karma :



Lord Krishna on Vedas and Vaidik Karma :

======== Shankar and Madhusudan Saraswati Bhashya ========

कर्म ब्रह्मोद्भवं विद्धि ब्रह्माक्षरसमुद्भवम्‌ ।
तस्मात्सर्वगतं ब्रह्म नित्यं यज्ञे प्रतिष्ठितम्‌ ॥

........ गीता ३.१५

शांकर भाष्य :

क्रियारूप कर्मको तू वेदरूप ब्रह्मसे उत्पन्न हुआ जान, अर्थात् कर्मकी उत्पत्तिका कारण वेद हैं ऐसे जान और वेदरूप ब्रह्म अक्षरसे उत्पन्न हुआ हैं अर्थात् अविनाशी परब्रह्म परमात्मा वेदकी उत्पत्तिका कारण हैं।

वेदरूप ब्रह्म साक्षात् परमात्मा नामक अक्षरसे पुरुषके निःश्वास की भांति उत्पन्न हुआ हैं, इसलिये वह सव अर्थोंको प्रकाशित करनेवाला होनेके कारण सर्वगत हैं ।

तथा यज्ञ-विधिमें वेदकी प्रधानता होनेके कारण वह सर्वगत होता हुआ ही सदा यज्ञमें प्रतिष्ठित हैं ।

वेदैश्च सर्वैरहमेव वेद्योवेदान्तकृद्वेदविदेव चाहम्‌ ॥

........ गीता ९५.१५

समस्त वेदों द्वारा मैं परमात्मा ही जाननेयोग्य हूँ । तथा वेदान्तका कर्ता, अर्थात वेदान्तार्थके सम्प्रदायका कर्ता और वेदके अर्थकों समझनेवाला भी मैं ही हूँ ।

अहं क्रतुरहं यज्ञः स्वधाहमहमौषधम्‌ ।
मंत्रोऽहमहमेवाज्यमहमग्निरहं हुतम्‌ ॥

........ गीता ९.१६

शांकर भाष्य :

क्रतु--श्रौतयज्ञविशेष मैं हूँ और यज्ञ--स्मार्तकर्मविशेष भी मैं ही हूँ। तथा जो पितरोंको दिया जाता हैं, वह स्वधा नामक अन्न भी मैं ही हूँ । सब प्राणियोंसे जो खायी जाती हैं, उसका नाम औषध हैं, वह औषध भी मैं ही हूँ ।

अथवा यों समझो कि सब प्राणियोंका साधारण अन्न 'स्वधा' हैं और व्याधिका नाश करनेके लिये काममे ली जानेवाली भेषज 'औषध' हैं ।

तथा जिसके द्वारा देव और पितरोंको हवि पहुंचायी जाती हैं वह मन्त्र भी मैं ही हूँ । इसके अतिरिक्त मैं ही आज्य-हवि-घृत हूँ, जिसमें होम किया जाता हैं वह अग्नि भी मैं ही हूँ और मैं ही हवनरूप कर्म भी हूँ ।

वेद्यं पवित्रमोङ्कार ऋक्साम यजुरेव च ॥

........ गीता ९.१७

जाननेके योग्य, पवित्र करनेवाला ॐकार, ऋग्वेद, सामवेद और यजुर्वेद भी मैं ही हूँ।
_______________________________

From Gudhartha Dipika, Sri Madhusudan Saraswati's Commentary :

कर्म ब्रह्मोद्भवं विद्धि ब्रह्माक्षरसमुद्भवम्‌ ।
तस्मात्सर्वगतं ब्रह्म नित्यं यज्ञे प्रतिष्ठितम्‌ ॥

........ Gita 3.15

Purport :

That (action), again, which is an originator of the 'Apurva' (unseen results), 'barahma-udbhavam', has the Veda as its origin. 'Brahma' means the Veda. That which has got this Veda alone as its valid means of knowledge (is 'brahma-udbhavam'). Know ('viddhi') that only those actions which are enjoined by the Veda are the source of invisible results ('Apurva'), but not any other (action) propounded by heretics.This is the meaning.

What is the difference between the Veda and the scriptures propounded by heretics, which makes what is enjoined by the Veda alone righteous but not so the others ?

Hence He says : 'Brahma', called the Veda ; 'aksara-samudbhavam', has the Immutable as its source. That is called 'aksara-samudbhavam' which, like the breath of man, originates, gets revealed, without being preceded by (i.e. not depending on) intellectual cognition, from the 'aksara', from the supreme Self which is free from (all) defects. Thus then, not being the creation of any person, the text of the Veda is free from all doubts about defects ; and, being the originator of right knowledge, it is authoritative with regard to supersensuous matters (अतीन्द्रिय विषयसमूह). But the heretical words taught by those who are possessed of defects such as error, inadvertence, imperfection of the organs, deceit etc. cannot produce right knowledge.

In line with this is the Sruti,

" Those that are Rig Veda, the Yajur Veda, the Sama Veda, the Atharvangirasa, Itihasa, Puranam, Vidyas, Upanishads, Shlokas, Sutras, elucidations and explanations are (like) the breath of this infinite Reality. All this are like the breath of this (supreme Self) indeed. "

~ (Brihadaranyak Up. 2.4.10)

'Tasmat', hence, having originated directly from the supreme Self ; 'brahma', called the Veda ; which is 'sarva-gatam', all-pervading, the revealer of everything ; and 'nityam', eternal, indestructible ; is, from the standpoint of its purport, 'pratishthitam', based ; 'yajne', on sacrifice, called Dharma, which is supersensuous (अतीन्द्रिय). So the meaning is that, by rejecting the pseudo-religion preached by heretics, Dharma taught by the Veda is to be practised.

In the beginning is manifested from the supreme Lord the Veda, which is revealer of everything, (and is) eternal and faultless ; from that follows the knowledge of rites and duties ; from the performance of those (rites and duties) is produced Dharma ; from that rainfall ; from that food ; from that the creatures ; in the same way, again, follows the engagement of the creatures in actions.

वेदैश्च सर्वैरहमेव वेद्योवेदान्तकृद्वेदविदेव चाहम्‌ ॥

........ Gita 15.15

Purport :

The Lord speaks of His Brahmanhood (ब्रह्मत्व) : 'Aham eva', I alone ; am 'vedayah', the object to be known ; 'vedaih ca sarvaih', through the Vedas as a whole, even where they reveal the deities Indra and others, because I am the Self of all.

This is in accordance with the mantra,

इन्द्रं मित्रं वरुणमग्निमाहुरथो दिव्यः स सुपर्णो गरुत्मान |
एकं सद विप्रा बहुधा वदन्त्यग्निं यमं मातरिश्वानमाहुः ||

.......... Rig Ved 1.164.46

" They call Agni as Indra, Mitra and Varuna ; (they) also (say) that He is the divine Garutman of beautiful wings. The sages speak of Him, who is one, in various ways ; they call Him Agni, Yama, Matarisvan. "

and the Sruti, "....... for He is all the devas "

~ (Brihadaranyak Up. 1.4.6).

In the form of Vedavyasa and others I am 'Vedanta-krt', the originator of the Vedanta, of the school following the purport of Vedanta. Not only this much, (but) 'aham', I ; 'eva', surely ; am 'ca', also ; 'vedavit', the knower of the Vedas. I Myself am the knower of the meaning of all the Vedas in the form of mantras and barahmanas comprising the Karma-kanda, meditations and Knowledge.

Hence it has been well said, ' For I am the basis of Brahman.'

~ (Gita 14.27)

अहं क्रतुरहं यज्ञः स्वधाहमहमौषधम्‌ ।
मंत्रोऽहमहमेवाज्यमहमग्निरहं हुतम्‌ ॥

........ Gita 9.16

Purport :

Even though the purpose is to state 'I am of all forms', still, the reference to those specific aspects is similar to the reference to the eight vessels etc. in the context of the sacrifice to 'Vaisvanara' with twelve vessels.

[Note : It may be asked, When Vasudeva is of all forms, why are only some specific aspects mentioned in the four verses ? The answer is : It is eulogistic, as in the case of mentioning the offering of rice-cakes in eight, nine, ten and eleven vessels after mentioning that one should perform the 'Vaisvanara-sacrifice' with offerings of rice-cakes in twelve vessels following the birth of a son. There the doubt arises whether the offerings in the eight, nine, ten or eleven vessels are different from and independent of the main offering to 'Vaisvanara' in twelve vessels , or they are sacrifices subsidiary to the main sacrifice, or their mention is a mere eulogy.The conclusion stated in that context is that they are mentioned by way of eulogy alone. Similarly, in the present case, although the main object is to show that 'Vasudeva' is of all forms, it is said by way of eulogy that He is present even in such individual eminent aspects that have been mentioned in the four verses.]

'Kratu' is a Vedic sacrifice such as the 'Agnistoma'. 'Yajna' means the great sacrifice such as the 'Vaisvadeva', well known in the Srutis and Smritis. 'Svadha' means food offered to the 'Pitris' (manes). 'Ausadha' means the food that grows on herbs and is eaten by all creatures ; or it means medicine. 'Mantra' means (particular kinds of Rg-mantras called) 'yajya', 'purovakya', 'anuvakya', etc., utilizing which oblations are offered to deities. 'Ajya' means ghee ; this indirectly refers to all kinds of oblations. 'Agni' refers to the 'Avahaniya-fire' etc. into which oblations are poured. 'Huta' is the act of offering, the pouring of oblations. All these am I Myself, the supreme Lord.

The use of 'I' with each one separately is to state that the contemplation of each one of these, as such, is in itself a worship of God. The overall meaning is that there is nothing in the aggregate of action, agent and result which is separate from the Lord.

वेद्यं पवित्रमोङ्कार ऋक्साम यजुरेव च ॥

........ Gita 9.17

Purport :

(I am) 'vedyam', the knowable, the object to be known ; 'pavitram', the sanctifier, that by which something is purified, the cause of sanctification ---- bathing in the Ganga, repeating the Gayatri and so on ----; 'omkarah', the syllable 'Om', the means of knowing Brahman which is to be known ; 'rk', the Rk, (a sentence) which has its letters and feet regulated ; 'sama', the Sama, which is that (Rk) itself set to tune ---- the other interpretation is that the word 'sama' is merely a term for song in general ----; 'ca', and 'yajuh', the Yajus, (a sentence ) which is not set to tune and is not regulated as regards its letters (and feet). These three kinds of mantras are useful in rites. By the use of 'ca', the hymns of the Atharva-Veda also are implied. The word 'eva' is to emphasize that 'I Myself (am these).'

" Om Shanti Shanti Shanti "

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