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Tuesday, 3 February 2015
Divine Names Of Lord Vishnu :
Divine Names Of Lord Vishnu :
= (Meaning And Explanation Based On Shankaracharya's Commentary) =
1. Vishnuh :
The Rig Ved (1-156-3) says :
आस्य जानन्तो नाम चिद विवक्तन महस्ते विष्णो सुमतिं भजामहे ||
" Cognizant of his greatness, celebrate his name; may we, O Vishnu, enjoy thy favour."
This and many similar passages show that the recitation of the names of Vishnu confers right knowledge. The derivative meaning is, He that pervades as from the root 'Vish', to pervade. Hence it means that He is unlimited by Space,Time, and Substance.
The Sruti (Narayan Upanishad., 1-13) says : " Narayana pervades the whole (Universe) externally and internally. "
Or the word 'Vishnu,' takes its derivation from the root 'Vish' to enter or permeate.
The Vishnu Puran (3-1) says :
".. Because this whole world has been pervaded by the energy of the great Soul, he is named Vishnu, from the root 'Vish' to 'enter' or 'pervade '."
"As I have pervaded the horizons, my glory stands foremost, and as I have measured by steps (the three worlds), O Partha, I am named 'Vishnu'." So says the Mahabharat (Santi Parva 342).
Vya. Vishnu is Surya. (Bhagvad Gita. 10-21) says :
आदित्यानामहं विष्णुर्ज्योतिषां रविरंशुमान् ।
" I am the Vishnu among the twelve Adityas." He identifies himself with these Deities.
2. Krshnah :
Krshna means Existence-Consciousness-Bliss.
Vyasa says in Mahabharat, Udyog Parva 70-5, " The word ' Krsh ' means Existence and 'Na' means Bliss. The union of these two is called eternal Brahman, Krshna."
Or because of his dark-blue complexion, He is known as Krshna. The Mahabharat, Santi Parva 343 says, " As my colour is dark blue, I am called Krshna, O Arjun."
3. Keshavah :
Whose hairs (Kesha) are beautiful (va), the termination, 'va' being used in the sense of 'praise' ; or 'Ka' means (Brahma) A (Vishnu), and lsha (Rudra), hence Kesha denotes the Trimurtis (the three manifestations) who are under His control (vasa); or because He slew the Asura named Keshin.
In the Vishnu Puran (5-16-23) Narada says to Krishna: " Because thou hast slain the impious Keshin, thou shalt be known, in the world, by the name of Keshava."
4. Vasudevah :
He is called Vasu as he veils (vas, to cover) (in his Maya). Deva : is he who sports, wishes to conquer, conducts, shines, creates, and moves.
In the Udyog Parva of Mahabhrat it is said: "Like the sun with his rays, I am covering (vas) the whole universe, and also I am residing (Deva) in all beings; hence I am called Vasudeva." (ibid. 70-30) " As I permeate ail beings, as I exist (in all things) and as I am the origin of gods. I am known as Vasudeva."
The Vishnu Puran (1-2) says : "As he resides everywhere, and in all things, he is termed Vasudeva. All beings remain in Paramatman, and he, in all beings, hence the Omnipresent is called Vasudeva."
5. Madhavah :
The husband of Lakshmi.
Or, he who is cognised through Madhuvidya (Brihadaranyak Up. 4-5)
Or, Vyasa (Mahabharat Udyog Parva 70.4) says : " O Bharata! know Madhava by silence (Mauna), by meditation (Dhyana) and by Yoga ."
Here 'Ma' stands for Mauna, Dha stands for Dhyana and Va stands for Yoga.
Or, The Lord of knowledge (Madhavah).
The Harivamsa says : " O Hari ! thou art the Lord (Dhava) of 'MA' or Knowledge; hence thou art named, Madhava, the Master of 'Ma'. "
Vya. There is a saying (Bhagvad Gita, 7-17) :
" प्रियो हि ज्ञानिनोऽत्यर्थमहं "
" I am beloved indeed of the wise."
Ka. Madhava : Ma, meditation; dha, introspection; and va, uniting.
6. Govindah :
The Mahabharat, Mokshadharma (Santi Parva. 343-41) says:
" I first knew (vinda) the Earth (go) which was carried away and hidden in a cave tby an Asura), hence I am praised by the appellation 'Govinda' by Deities, and Scriptures."
The Harivangsha (76-45 and 279-49) says:
"I am Indra (Lord) over the Devas, you are lord over the cows, hence the world will ever praise you as, 'Govinda ' ; speech is named 'Go,' and since you confer speech, O Lord, the Sages call you 'Govinda'."
Ka. Go+Vid has the following ten meanings :
1. Svarga (Heaven) : He transcends the Heaven.
2. Arrows : (He knows all the weapons).
3. Cattle : He is the leader of the ignorant ones.
4. Speech : He is to be known by the Vedas.
5. Thunderbolt : He has the Vajra marks on his feet.
6. Quarters : He is known in all quarters.
7. eyes : He is in the person residing in the eyes.
8. The sun : He is in the form of the Sun.
9. Earth : He recovered the Earth from the Titans.
10. Waters : His seat is in the waters.
And Vid, to know.
7. Purushah :
He that reclines (S'ete) in the body (Pur). Mahabharat says: " Since the Great Soul pervades through and resides in this holy city (the body) with nine gates possessed of these organs (senses, etc.), he is called Purusha." By a permutation of the letter ' a ' into' A,' it would give this meaning, viz., He who existed (asit, as to exist) before (pur) everything.
The Sruti (Taittiriya Aranyak, 1-23) says; " I indeed existed here before. As he existed before, he is called Purusha." Or because he resides (shad) in the excellent ones (Puru), or because he bestows (San to give) rewards (Puru, reward), or because destroys (Sya, to cut) the forms or worlds (Puru) during Pralaya, or he pervades (Pur) and resides (Sad) in everything.
The fifth Veda (Mahabharat Udyog Parva, 70-11) says : " He is named the Supreme Person since he pervades and resides (in everything)."
The etymology of the word Purusha is given thus in (Brihadaranyak Up., 3-4-1) : " Because he as the first (Purva) of all of them consumed (aushad) by fire all sins, therefore he is called Purusha " ;
Or, because he lives (Sayana) in the city (Puri). The Sruti (Brihadaranyak Up., 4-5-18) says: "He is indeed called Purusha who lives in all the cities."
8. Padmanabhah :
Seated in the pericarp of the lotus (Padmanabhah).
Vya. His navel is like the shape of a lotus.
9. Janardanah :
The oppressor of (wicked) men.
Or he who sends them to hell; Or he whom men (Jana) pray (ardana) for all kinds of prosperity and eternal happiness."
Vya. He is the revealer of the Vedas.
10. Achyutah :
He was not shaken and is not and will not be shaken from his own glory; hence the name Achyuta.
The Sruti (Narayan. Up. 13) says : " He is eternal, calm and unswerving (Achyuta)."
Lord also (Mahabharat Santi Parva. 343) says : " I did not swerve from my path at any time before ; hence I am called Achyuta by that act."
Or, Unswerving (from his nature) being free from the six kinds of changes (viz., birth, death, etc.).
11. Hrishikeshah :
' Hrishlka ' : senses, and ' Isha ' : Lord, i.e., he assumes the form of Kshetrajna ; or he who controls the senses, the Supreme Atman ; or He who in the form of sun and moon (Hrishi) delights the world by his (Kesha) rays.
The Moksha-dharma (Mahabharat, Santi parva., 343. 62-63) says: " The sun and moon through their rays known as Kesha always uphold the Universe as it is by awaking it and causing it to sleep. By such awaking and causing to sleep, the Universe is delighted. It is in consequence of these acts of Agni and Soma who uphold the Universe, that I have come to be called by the name of Hrishikesa. O son of Pandu ! Indeed, I am the boon-giver Isana, the creator of the Universe."
12. Madhusudanah :
The Slayer of Madhu (Madhusudanah).
The Mahabharata says : " The Supreme Purusha (Vishnu) slew also the great Asura Madhu born to Karnamisra, in compliance with the request of Brahma, hence the Sages, the Devas, the Asuras and men call Janardana by the appellation of 'Madhusudana '."
13. Harih :
As He destroys Samsara with its cause, He is ' Harih '.
14. Narayanah :
' Nara ' : Atman ; ' Nara ' : the Akasa and other effects that are produced from it; He, as their cause, pervades them and they are thus his abode (ayana). Hence he is named ' Narayana '.
The Sruti (Narayan. Up. 13) says:
" The in and out of this whole Universe, whatever we see or hear, all these are pervaded by Narayana."
The Mahabharata (Udyog Parva. 1-1-3) says: " The categories (Tattvas) are called Nara, as they are sprung from ' Nara ' (Atman) ; He is called Narayana as they are his abode."
Or because he is the abode of the ' Naras ' during involution.
The Sruti (Taittiriya Up., 3-1) says: " Whom they approach, and enter."
Brahma Vaivarta Puran : "As he is the seat of Naras, he is called Narayana."
According to Manu Smriti (1-10) : "The waters are called Naras which come out of Nara (God). As they are originally his abode, he is called Narayana."
The Narasimha Puran says: " This is the real Mantra that destroys the deadly poison of Samsnra, 'Narayana ya Namah' (salutation to Narayana).This I proclaim very loudly with uplifted hands; let the ascetics with passions curbed and intellects clear listen to me."
15. Dhananjayah :
The conqueror of wealth (Dhananjayah).
This refers to Arjuna who brought immense wealth from his campaigns.
Lord (Bhagavad Gita 10-37) says :
" पाण्डवानां धनञ्जयः "
" Among the sons of Pandu I am Dhananjaya (Arjuna)."
16. Damodarah :
He who is known through the mind which is purified (Udara) by means of 'Dama' or self-control and other qualities. The Mahabharat says : " They call him 'Damodara,' as he is known by means of Dama (control of the senses) " ; or because he (in his Krishna incarnation) was tied up by Yashoda. by means of a cord round his waist to two trees.
Brahma Purana (184-42) says: " She (Yashoda) tied him up fast to the two (trees) with a cord (Dama) round his waist (Udara); hence he was named Damodara."
According to Vyasa (Mahabharat. Udyog Parva) : " Dama means the worlds; and as they are in his womb. the Lord is named Damodara."
Ka. He wears the blissful devotees of his as one does the flower garlands (Dama).
17. Purushottamah :
The foremost among men.
According to Bhagavad Gita (15-18) :
यस्मात्क्षरमतीतोऽहमक्षरादपि चोत्तमः ।
अतोऽस्मि लोके वेदे च प्रथितः पुरुषोत्तमः ॥
" Since I excel the destructible, and am more excellent also than the in-destructible, in the world and in the Veda I am proclaimed, ' Purushottama '."
18. Vasuh :
The dweller (Vasuh).
Or, 'Vasu' means one of the (eight) Vasus as described (in Bhagavad Gita. 10-23) :
" वसूनां पावकश्चास्मि "
" I am Pavaka among the Vasus."
Vya. He dwells in the heart of the sages (Sadhus), the righteous (Nyayins) and the purified ones (Santas).
The wealth which he gives to others is himself. Or he who veils (Vas, to cover) himself in Maya.
Or, as he lives (Vas) in the Akasa (ether) alone and nowhere else, he is named Vasu or Vayu from the peculiarity of his abode.
The Sruti (Katha Up., 5-2) says : " He is Vasu (vayu) dwelling in the atmosphere."
The refuge of all (Vasuh).
As all Beings dwell in Him, and He in them ; or He who conceals his nature by Maya.
Vya. He dwells in the milky ocean.
19. Chaturvyuyah :
Of four manifestations (Chaturvyuhah).
Vyasa says: "Janardana, of excellent fame, manifests himself in four forms, Vasudeva, etc. (Vasudeva, Sankarshana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha) and carries on creation, etc."
Having four Vyuhas (Chaturvyuhah).
The four Vyuhas or persons as mentioned in the (Aitareya Up. 3-2-3) are: " The person in the body, the person in the Chandas, the person in the Vedas, and the Great Person. "
20. Chaturbhujah :
The four-armed (Chaturbhujah).
Vya. We see he is described in the as four-armed and beautifully limbed '.
21. Chaturasrah :
Because He distributes rewards to men according to the nature of their actions.
Ka. Chaturasrah (Four-divisioned) (1) Dharma, etc., i.e., (Artha, Kama and Moksha). He bestows on the deserving the four desired objects according to their deserts. (2) The sacrificial fire is of four kinds: as Ahavaniya, etc. (3) He bestows more results on them who, worship him in Chaturasrah. i.e., a Yandra, square in shape, (4) He nourishes with food the four kinds of creatures, born of womb, born of egg, born of sweat, and those that come out of earth. (5) He protects the four kinds of people, the distressed, those desirous of knowing the Lord, the desirers of wealth and the wise ones. (6) He has four heads in the form of fire. (7) He is known by the head (Upanishads) of the four Vedas. (8) His command is obeyed in the four (quarters) of the world. (9) He destroys in his fire of death, at the end, the four kinds of creations. (10) He declared the four Vedas by his four faces (in the form of Brahma). (11) His form shines beautifully like a four-square object.
22. Devakinandanah :
The son of Devaki (Devakinandanah).
The Mahabharata says: "All the luminaries in the world, the three worlds, the protectors of the worlds, the three Vedas, the three sacred fires, the five oblations and all the Devas are the Son of Devaki (Krishna)."
~~~~~~~~~ श्री हरि ॐ तत् सत् ~~~~~~~~~~