Scientists from the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) have recently discovered the world’s oldest known case of a Successful human brain surgery after unearthing a 4300 year old skull from the Indus valley site in India. The surgery performed in this particular case is called as Trephination.
Trephination is the process of drilling holes in the damaged skull to remove shattered bits of bone from a fractured skull and clean out the blood that often pools under the skull after a blow to the head. Trepanation was practiced as a common means of surgery during the Harappan period in several parts of the Indian subcontinent.
A. The surgical hole for Trepanation.
B. Picture showing the original fracture on the skull probably from a severe blow by a strong wooden stick.
C. Enlarged view of the trepanated site showing a clear rim of 3 mm width at the internal border of the hole - an evidence of healing, indicating that the victim survived for several years after the surgery
D. Another trepanated skull found from the Kashmir Valley showing signs of multiple trepanations.
The Harappan male skull is kept in the Palaeoanthropology Repository of the Anthropological Survey of India at Kolkata.