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Tuesday, 10 February 2015
పురుష సూక్తము హిందూ ధర్మానికి పట్టుకొమ్మ. వేద వాజ్మయంలోని మంత్ర భాగానికి చెందినవి సూక్తాలు. ఋగ్వేదంలోని దశమ మండలంలో ప్రస్తావించబడింది. 'సూక్తం' అనగా సమగ్రంగా స్వరూప నిరూపణ చెయ్యడం అని అర్థం. ఐహికంగా, ఆముష్మికంగా శాంతి, అభ్యుదయం అన్నవి ఈ సూక్తాల పరమ ప్రయోజనాలు. ఇవి ఈనాటి సమాజానికి ముఖ్యంగా కావలసినవి.
పురుష సూక్తంలో విరాట్ పురుషుని యొక్క స్వరూప స్వభావ విశేషాలు నిరూపించబడ్డాయి. వేద ప్రాతిపదితమైన హైందవధర్మానికి, చాతుర్వర్ణ వ్యవస్థకు, దాని సమగ్రాచరణకు, క్రమానికి ఇది ప్రాథమిక సూత్రం.
ఆస్తిక జనుల నిత్యార్చనా విధానాలలో షోడశోపచార పూజ విధానం ముఖ్యమైనది. అందులో అనేక సంప్రదాయా లున్నాయి. అయినా సర్వ దేవతలకూ సమానంగా పురుషసూక్త విధానాన్ని అనుసరించడం దేశవ్యాప్తంగా ఆచరణలో ఉన్నది.
ఎక్కిరాల కృష్ణమాచార్య గారు తిరుమల తిరుపతి దేవస్థానములు పక్షాన టీకా తాత్పర్యాలతో రచించారు.
Introduction to Suktas
The Satarudriya, Purushasukta, Narayanasukta and Srisukta are generally recited in a series in most of the temples of worship, especially, during the performance of the holy ritual of Abhisheka. These hymns, which are from the original Vedas, represent in a quintessence an invocation of the Almighty manifest as Rudra-Siva, Narayana as the Virat-Purusha, and Lakshmi as the Goddess of Prosperity.
The Satarudriya, which is also known as the Rudra-Adhyaya, occurs in the Yajurveda, and is a magnificent vision of the Creator of the Universe, designated here as Siva or Rudra, in His aspects of an awe-inspiring immanence in everything that can be found or even conceived of in creation. The ordinary notions of religion and even of God are lifted here from the limitations of human thinking and made to cover the vast variety which God has revealed as all this manifestation. In this comprehensive attitude of devotion to God, the Satarudriya resembles the description in the Purushasakta.
The Purushasukta is a hymn dedicated to the Cosmic Person, we may call this Divine Person as Narayana, or Virat-Purusha, as we would like, and here is to be found also the cosmological suggestion that God pervades all things, not merely as a sort of enveloping or entering into everything, but even forming the very stuff and substance of Creation as a whole. All that was, is, and will be, is hallowed and adored as the one Supreme Purusha. The great Indian tradition that all life is Yajna, or sacrifice, has its origin in this sublime hymn of the Veda, where the act of Creation by God is regarded as the First Sacrifice performed by God Himself, as it were, by way of a Self-Alienation of Himself into this objective Universe. Thus, every form of self-alienation which is involved in any sacrifice or service rendered by the human being is indwelt, even in its lowest form, by this Highest Spirit of the original Divine Sacrifice. A sacrifice is the way by which one becomes another, the subject sees himself in the object and looks upon the object as one would look upon one's own self. This is the beginning of Dharma - Tani dharmani prathamanyasan - these original principles of Creation became the primary roots of all Dharma, or virtue, or righteousness, in this world. The Purushasukta, also, for the first time, makes mention of the fourfold classification of human society into the Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaisya and Sudra types, representing the spiritual, political, economic and working aspects of human society. What a wonderful inclusiveness of contemplation do we find in this small hymn which embodies in itself the mightiest seeds of philosophic, spiritual and social values!
The Narayanasukta, again, is a hymn on the Supreme Being as the Father of Creation, inconceivably transcendent and yet hiddenly present in the heart of everyone, being nearer than even the nearest of things. This is a tiny but incisive form of meditation, by which the human spirit endeavours to commune itself with the Supreme Spirit.
The Srisukta is an invocation to Mahalakshmi as the Divinity presiding over all prosperity in every form - material, social as well as spiritual. Intriguingly, the feminine gender is used in addressing Lakshmi as the Goddess of Fortune, in falling with the tradition in human thought that the Universe is the Glory of God, the Power of God, conceived almost as the Consort of God, for purpose of popular adoration and worship. This would explain the mystery behind the gender. In fact, God and His Powers are beyond the range of human evaluation or values, and thus above the ideas of male and female.
These hymns are here presented in their original, with a translation in the English language, for the benefit of the public, which, we hope, will be of immense utility in people's daily prayers.
Purusha Sukta Meaning
ఓం తచ్చం యోరావృ’ణీమహే | గాతుం యఙ్ఞాయ’ | గాతుం యఙ్ఞప’తయే | దైవీ” స్వస్తిర’స్తు నః |స్వస్తిర్మాను’షేభ్యః | ఊర్ధ్వం జి’గాతు భేషజమ్ | శం నో’ అస్తు ద్విపదే” | శం చతు’ష్పదే |
ఓం శాంతిః శాంతిః శాంతిః’ ||
సహస్ర’శీర్షా పురు’షః | సహస్రాక్షః సహస్ర’పాత్ |
స భూమిం’ విశ్వతో’ వృత్వా | అత్య’తిష్ఠద్దశాంగుళమ్ ||
పురు’ష ఏవేదగ్మ్ సర్వమ్” | యద్భూతం యచ్చ భవ్యమ్” |
ఉతామృ’తత్వ స్యేశా’నః | యదన్నే’నాతిరోహ’తి ||
ఏతావా’నస్య మహిమా | అతో జ్యాయాగ్’శ్చ పూరు’షః |
పాదో”உస్య విశ్వా’ భూతాని’ | త్రిపాద’స్యామృతం’ దివి ||
త్రిపాదూర్ధ్వ ఉదైత్పురు’షః | పాదో”உస్యేహాஉஉభ’వాత్పునః’ |
తతో విష్వణ్-వ్య’క్రామత్ | సాశనానశనే అభి ||
తస్మా”ద్విరాడ’జాయత | విరాజో అధి పూరు’షః |
స జాతో అత్య’రిచ్యత | పశ్చాద్-భూమిమథో’ పురః ||
యత్పురు’షేణ హవిషా” | దేవా యఙ్ఞమత’న్వత |
వసంతో అ’స్యాసీదాజ్యమ్” | గ్రీష్మ ఇధ్మశ్శరధ్ధవిః ||
సప్తాస్యా’సన్-పరిధయః’ | త్రిః సప్త సమిధః’ కృతాః |
దేవా యద్యఙ్ఞం త’న్వానాః | అబ’ధ్నన్-పురు’షం పశుమ్ ||
తం యఙ్ఞం బర్హిషి ప్రౌక్షన్’ | పురు’షం జాతమ’గ్రతః |
తేన’ దేవా అయ’జంత | సాధ్యా ఋష’యశ్చ యే ||
తస్మా”ద్యఙ్ఞాత్-స’ర్వహుతః’ | సంభృ’తం పృషదాజ్యమ్ |
పశూగ్-స్తాగ్శ్చ’క్రే వాయవ్యాన్’ | ఆరణ్యాన్-గ్రామ్యాశ్చ యే ||
తస్మా”ద్యఙ్ఞాత్స’ర్వహుతః’ | ఋచః సామా’ని జఙ్ఞిరే |
ఛందాగ్మ్’సి జఙ్ఞిరే తస్మా”త్ | యజుస్తస్మా’దజాయత ||
తస్మాదశ్వా’ అజాయంత | యే కే చో’భయాద’తః |
గావో’ హ జఙ్ఞిరే తస్మా”త్ | తస్మా”జ్జాతా అ’జావయః’ ||
యత్పురు’షం వ్య’దధుః | కతిథా వ్య’కల్పయన్ |
ముఖం కిమ’స్య కౌ బాహూ | కావూరూ పాదా’వుచ్యేతే ||
బ్రాహ్మణో”உస్య ముఖ’మాసీత్ | బాహూ రా’జన్యః’ కృతః |
ఊరూ తద’స్య యద్వైశ్యః’ | పద్భ్యాగ్మ్ శూద్రో అ’జాయతః ||
చంద్రమా మన’సో జాతః | చక్షోః సూర్యో’ అజాయత |
ముఖాదింద్ర’శ్చాగ్నిశ్చ’ | ప్రాణాద్వాయుర’జాయత ||
నాభ్యా’ ఆసీదంతరి’క్షమ్ | శీర్ష్ణో ద్యౌః సమ’వర్తత |
పద్భ్యాం భూమిర్దిశః శ్రోత్రా”త్ | తథా’ లోకాగ్మ్ అక’ల్పయన్ ||
వేదాహమే’తం పురు’షం మహాంతమ్” | ఆదిత్యవ’ర్ణం తమ’సస్తు పారే |
సర్వా’ణి రూపాణి’ విచిత్య ధీరః’ | నామా’ని కృత్వాஉభివదన్, యదాஉஉస్తే” ||
ధాతా పురస్తాద్యము’దాజహార’ | శక్రః ప్రవిద్వాన్-ప్రదిశశ్చత’స్రః |
తమేవం విద్వానమృత’ ఇహ భ’వతి | నాన్యః పంథా అయ’నాయ విద్యతే ||
యఙ్ఞేన’ యఙ్ఞమ’యజంత దేవాః | తాని ధర్మా’ణి ప్రథమాన్యా’సన్ |
తే హ నాకం’ మహిమానః’ సచంతే | యత్ర పూర్వే’ సాధ్యాస్సంతి’ దేవాః ||
అద్భ్యః సంభూ’తః పృథివ్యై రసా”చ్చ | విశ్వక’ర్మణః సమ’వర్తతాధి’ |
తస్య త్వష్టా’ విదధ’ద్రూపమే’తి | తత్పురు’షస్య విశ్వమాజా’నమగ్రే” ||
వేదాహమేతం పురు’షం మహాంతమ్” | ఆదిత్యవ’ర్ణం తమ’సః పర’స్తాత్ |
తమేవం విద్వానమృత’ ఇహ భ’వతి | నాన్యః పంథా’ విద్యతేஉయ’నాయ ||
ప్రజాప’తిశ్చరతి గర్భే’ అంతః | అజాయ’మానో బహుధా విజా’యతే |
తస్య ధీరాః పరి’జానంతి యోనిమ్” | మరీ’చీనాం పదమిచ్ఛంతి వేధసః’ ||
యో దేవేభ్య ఆత’పతి | యో దేవానాం” పురోహి’తః |
పూర్వో యో దేవేభ్యో’ జాతః | నమో’ రుచాయ బ్రాహ్మ’యే ||
రుచం’ బ్రాహ్మం జనయ’ంతః | దేవా అగ్రే తద’బ్రువన్ |
యస్త్వైవం బ్రా”హ్మణో విద్యాత్ | తస్య దేవా అసన్ వశే” ||
హ్రీశ్చ’ తే లక్ష్మీశ్చ పత్న్యౌ” | అహోరాత్రే పార్శ్వే |
నక్ష’త్రాణి రూపమ్ | అశ్వినౌ వ్యాత్తమ్” |
ఇష్టం మ’నిషాణ | అముం మ’నిషాణ | సర్వం’ మనిషాణ ||
తచ్చం యోరావృ’ణీమహే | గాతుం యఙ్ఞాయ’ | గాతుం యఙ్ఞప’తయే | దైవీ” స్వస్తిర’స్తు నః | స్వస్తిర్మాను’షేభ్యః |ఊర్ధ్వం జి’గాతు భేషజమ్ | శం నో’ అస్తు ద్విపదే” | శం చతు’ష్పదే |
ఓం శాంతిః శాంతిః శాంతిః’ ||
Purusha Suktam - in sanskrit with meaning - from Rig Veda 10.90
- from Rig Veda (10.90)
पुरुष सुक्तम्Purusha Suktam
सहस्रशीर्षा पुरुषः सहस्राक्षः सहस्रपात् ।
स भूमिं विश्वतो वृत्वात्यतिष्ठद्दशाङुलम् ॥१॥
Sahasra-Shiirssaa Purussah Sahasra-Akssah Sahasra-Paat |
Sa Bhuumim Vishvato Vrtva-Atya[i]-Tisstthad-Dasha-Angulam ||1||
1.1: The Purusha (The Universal Being) has Thousand Heads, Thousand Eyes and Thousand Feet (Thousand signifies innumerable which points to the omnipresence of the Universal Being),
1.2: He envelops the World from all sides (i.e. He pervades each part of the Creation), and extends beyond in the TenDirections ( represented by Ten Fingers ),
पुरुष एवेदं सर्वं यद्भूतं यच्च भव्यम् ।
उतामृतत्वस्येशानो यदन्नेनातिरोहति ॥२॥
Purussa Evedam Sarvam Yad-Bhuutam Yacca Bhavyam |
Uta-Amrtatvasye[a-I]shaano Yad-Annena-Ati-Rohati ||2||
2.1: The Purusha is indeed All this (Creation) in essence; That which existed in the Past, and that which will exist in theFuture,
2.2: Everything (i.e the whole Creation) is woven by the Immortal essence of the Great Lord (Purusha); by becoming Foodof which (i.e. by getting consumed in Whose Immortal essence through surrender) one transcends the gross world (and becomes Immortal).
एतावानस्य महिमातो ज्यायाँश्च पूरुषः ।
पादोऽस्य विश्वा भूतानि त्रिपादस्यामृतं दिवि ॥३॥
Etaavaanasya Mahima-Ato Jyaayaash-Ca Puurussah |
Paado-Asya Vishvaa Bhuutaani Tri-Paad-Asya-Amrtam Divi ||3||
3.1: The Purusha is Greater than all the Greatness (which can be expressed by words),
3.2: His One Foot has become all these (visible) Worlds, and His Three Feet rests in the Immortal World of theTranscendence.
त्रिपादूर्ध्व उदैत्पूरुषः पादोऽस्येहाभवत्पुनः ।
ततो विष्वङ् व्यक्रामत्साशनानशने अभि ॥४॥
Tri-Paad-Uurdhva Udait-Puurussah Paado-Asye[a-I]ha-Abhavat-Punah |
Tato Vissvang Vya[i-A]kraamat-Saashana-Anashane Abhi ||4||
4.1: The Three Feet of the Purusha is raised high Above (in Transcendental Realm), and His One Foot becomes the Creationagain and again.
4.2: There, in the Creation, He pervades all the Living ( who eats ) and the Non-Living ( who does not eat ) beings.
तस्माद्विराळजायत विराजो अधि पूरुषः ।
स जातो अत्यरिच्यत पश्चाद्भूमिमथो पुरः ॥५॥
Tasmaad-Viraadda-Jaayata Viraajo Adhi Puurussah |
Sa Jaato Atya[i-A]ricyata Pashcaad-Bhuumim-Atho Purah ||5||
5.1: From Him (i.e. the Purusha) was born the Virat; (the Virat came into being) from the presence of the Shining Purusha(Who remained as the background or substratum of Virat);
5.2: He (i.e. the Virat) created the Earth, by manifesting Her from His own being as substratum.
यत्पुरुषेण हविषा देवा यज्ञमतन्वत ।
वसन्तो अस्यासीदाज्यं ग्रीष्म इध्मः शरद्धविः ॥६॥
Yat-Purussenna Havissaa Devaa Yajnyam-Atanvata |
Vasanto Asya-Asiida-Ajyam Griissma Idhmah Sharad-[d]Havih ||6||
6.1: With the Purusha as the (Sacrificial) Fire, the Deva (the Shining One, referring to Virat) continued the Yagya (Sacrifice of creation),
6.2: Spring was (created as) the clarified Butter (of that Yagya), Summer was (created as) the Fuel (of that Yagya), andAutumn was (created as) the Havis (Sacrificial offering of that Yagya).
तं यज्ञं बर्हिषि प्रौक्षन्पुरुषं जातमग्रतः ।
तेन देवा अयजन्त साध्या ऋषयश्च ये ॥७॥
Tam Yajnyam Barhissi Pra-Ukssan-Purussam Jaatam-Agratah |
Tena Devaa Ayajanta Saadhyaa Rssayash-Ca Ye ||7||
7.1: The First Divine Men were created as the Holy Water sprinkled with the Kusa Grass in that Yagya (Sacrifice of Creation).
7.2: The First Divine Men were the Sadhya Devas and the Rishis, Who were created by Him, the Deva (the Shining One, referring to Virat), Who performed the Yagya. (These Rishis were not human but divine Rishis like Saptarshis created directly by Virat).
तस्माद्यज्ञात्सर्वहुतः सम्भृतं पृषदाज्यम् ।
पशून्ताँश्चक्रे वायव्यानारण्यान् ग्राम्याश्च ये ॥८॥
Tasmaad-Yajnyaat-Sarvahutah Sambhrtam Prssadaajyam |
Pashuun-Taashcakre Vaayavyaan-Aarannyaan Graamyaash-Ca Ye ||8||
8.1: From the Complete Offering of His (i.e. Virat's) Yagya (Sacrifice of Creation) was obtained Ghee mixed with coagulated Milk, ...
8.2: ... which (i.e. the Ghee and Milk) are (the created) Animals, both of Air (Birds) and of Forests (Wild Animals) andVillages (Domestic Animals).
तस्माद्यज्ञात्सर्वहुत ऋचः सामानि जज्ञिरे ।
छन्दांसि जज्ञिरे तस्माद्यजुस्तस्मादजायत ॥९॥
Tasmaad-Yajnyaat-Sarvahuta Rcah Saamaani Jajnyire |
Chandaamsi Jajnyire Tasmaad-Yajus-Tasmaad-Ajaayata ||9||
9.1: From the Complete Offering of His (i.e. Virat's) Yagya (Sacrifice of Creation) was born the Rig Veda and Sama Veda,
9.2: The Chandas (Vedic Meters) were born from Him, and the Yajur Veda was born from Him.
तस्मादश्वा अजायन्त ये के चोभयादतः ।
गावोः ह जज्ञिरे तस्मात् तस्माज्जाता अजावयः ॥१०॥
Tasmaad-Ashvaa Ajaayanta Ye Ke Co[a-U]bhayaadatah |
Gaavoh Ha Jajnyire Tasmaat Tasmaaj-Jaataa Ajaa-Vayah ||10||
10.1: From Him (i.e. Virat) was born the Horses, and all those animals who has teeth in both jaws,
10.2: From Him (i.e. Virat) was born the Cows, and from Him was born all types of Goats.
यत्पुरुषं व्यदधुः कतिधा व्यकल्पयन् ।
मुखं किमस्य कौ बाहू का ऊरू पादा उच्येते ॥११॥
Yat-Purussam Vya[i-A]dadhuh Katidhaa Vya[i-A]kalpayan |
Mukham Kimasya Kau Baahuu Kaa Uuruu Paadaa Ucyete ||11||
11.1: What did the Purusha (i.e. Virat) hold within Him? How many parts were assigned in His Huge Form?
11.2: What was His Mouth? What was His Arms? What was His Thighs? And what was His Feet?
ब्राह्मणोऽस्य मुखमासीद् बाहू राजन्यः कृतः ।
ऊरू तदस्य यद्वैश्यः पद्भ्यां शूद्रो अजायत ॥१२॥
Braahmanno-Asya Mukham-Aasiid Baahuu Raajanyah Krtah |
Uuruu Tad-Asya Yad-Vaishyah Padbhyaam Shuudro Ajaayata ||12||
12.1: The Brahmanas were His Mouth, the Kshatriyas became His Arms,
12.2: The Vaishyas were His Thighs, and from His pair of Feet were born the Shudras.
चन्द्रमा मनसो जातश्चक्षोः सूर्यो अजायत ।
मुखादिन्द्रश्चाग्निश्च प्राणाद्वायुरजायत ॥१३॥
Candramaa Manaso Jaatash-Cakssoh Suuryo Ajaayata |
Mukhaad-Indrash-Ca-Agnish-Ca Praannaad-Vaayur-Ajaayata ||13||
13.1: The Moon was born from His Mind and the Sun was born from His Eyes,
13.2: Indra and Agni (Fire) were born from His Mouth, and Vayu (Wind) was born from His Breath.
नाभ्या आसीदन्तरिक्षं शीर्ष्णो द्यौः समवर्तत ।
पद्भ्यां भूमिर्दिशः श्रोत्रात्तथा लोकाँ अकल्पयन् ॥१४॥
Naabhyaa Aasiid-Antarikssam Shiirssnno Dyauh Samavartata |
Padbhyaam Bhuumir-Dishah Shrotraat-Tathaa Lokaa Akalpayan ||14||
14.1: His Navel became the Antariksha (the intermediate Space between Heaven and Earth), His Head sustained theHeaven,
14.2: From His Feet the Earth (was sustained), and from His Ears the Directions (were sustained); in this manner all theWorlds were regulated by Him.
सप्तास्यासन् परिधयस्त्रिः सप्त समिधः कृताः ।
देवा यद्यज्ञं तन्वाना अबध्नन्पुरुषं पशुम् ॥१५॥
Saptaasya[i-A]asan Paridhayas-Trih Sapta Samidhah Krtaah |
Devaa Yadyajnyam Tanvaanaa Abadhnan-Purussam Pashum ||15||
15.1: By making Seven Enclosures with Three times Seven sacrificial Firewood (symbolically representing various koshas etc), ...
15.2: ... the Deva (the Shining One referring to Virat) in that Yagya (Sacrifice of Creation), bound the infinite expanse of the Purusha as (apparently) finite living beings (Pashu).
यज्ञेन यज्ञमयजन्त देवास्तानि धर्माणि प्रथमान्यासन् ।
ते ह नाकं महिमानः सचन्त यत्र पूर्वे साध्याः सन्ति देवाः ॥१६॥
Yajnyena Yajnyam-Ayajanta Devaas-Taani Dharmaanni Prathamaanya[i-A]asan |
Te Ha Naakam Mahimaanah Sa-Canta Yatra Puurve Saadhyaah Santi Devaah ||16||
16.1: The Devas performed the external Yagya by meditating on the real Yagya (i.e. contemplating on the Purusha Who is Shining behind everything); And thus they first obtained the Dharma (based on the Oneness of the Purusha),
16.2: By Meditating on the Greatness of the Chidakasha (Blissful Spiritual Sky behind everyone, which is the essence of the Purusha), during those earlier times, the Spiritual Aspirants became the Shining One themselves.
Purusha Sukta Meaning
The Purusha-Sukta of the Vedas is not only a powerful hymn of the insight of the great Seer, Rishi Narayana, on the Cosmic Divine Being as envisaged through the multitudinous variety of creation, but also a short-cut provided to the seeker of Reality for entering into the state of Superconsciousness. The Sukta is charged with a fivefold force potent enough to rouse God-experience in the seeker. Firstly, the Seer (Rishi) of the Sukta is Narayana, the greatest of sages ever known, who is rightly proclaimed in the Bhagavata as the only person whose mind desire has not been able to shake and, as the Mahabharata says, whose power not even all the gods can ever imagine. Such is the Rishi to whom the Sukta was revealed and who gave expression to it as the hymn on the Supreme Purusha. Secondly, the Mantras of the Sukta are composed in a particular metre (Chandas) which has its own contribution to make in the generation of a special spiritual force during the recitation of the hymn. Thirdly, the intonation (Svara) with which the Mantras are recited adds a part to the production of the correct meaning intended to be conveyed through the Mantras and any error in the intonation may produce a different effect altogether. Fourthly, the Deity (Devata) addressed in the hymn is not any externalised or projected form as a content in space and time but the Universal Being which transcends space and time and is the Indivisible Supraessential essence of experience. Fifthly, the Sukta suggests, apart from the universalised concept of the Purusha, an inwardness of this experience, thus distinguishing it from perception of any object.
The Sukta begins with the affirmation that all the heads, all the eyes, and all the feet in creation are of the Purusha. Herein is implied the astonishing truth that we do not see many things, bodies, objects, persons, forms, colours or hear sounds, but only the limbs of the One Purusha. And, just as, when we behold the hand, leg, ear, or nose of a person differently, we do not think that we are seeing many things, but only a single person in front of us, and we develop no separate attitude whatsoever in regard to these parts of the body of the person, because here our attitude is one of a single whole of consciousness beholding one complete person irrespective of the limbs or the part of which the person may be the composite, we are to behold creation not as a conglomeration of discrete persons and things, with each one of whom we have to develop a different attitude or conduct, but as a single Universal Person who gloriously shines before us and gazes at us through all the eyes, nods before us through all the heads, smiles through all lips and speaks through all tongues. This is the Purusha of the Purusha-Sukta. This is the God sung in the hymn by Rishi Narayana. This is not the god of any religion and this is not one among many gods. This is the only God who can possibly be anywhere, at any time.
Our thought, when it is extended and trained in the manner required to see the Universe before us, receives a stirring shock, because this very thought lays the axe at the root of all desires, for no desire is possible when all creation is but one Purusha. This illusion and this ignorance in which the human mind is moving when it desires anything in the world - whether it is a physical object or a mental condition, or a social situation - is immediately dispelled by the simple but the most revolutionary idea which the Sukta deals at the mind with one stroke. We behold the One Being (Ekam Sat) before us, not a manifoldness or a variety to be desired or avoided.
But a greater shock is yet to be. For, the Sukta implies to any intelligent thinker that he himself is one of the heads or limbs of the Purusha. This condition, where even to think would be to think as the Purusha thinks - for no other way of thinking is possible, and it would be to think through all persons and things in creation simultaneously - would indeed not be human thinking or living. Just as we do not think merely through one cell in our brain but think through the entire brain, any single thinker forming but a part of the Purusha's Universal Thinking Centre, 'a Centre which is everywhere with circumference nowhere', cannot afford to think as it is usually being attempted by what are called Jivas or individual fictitious centres of thinking. There is no other way (Na anyah pantha vidyate). This is Supramental thinking. This is Divine Meditation. This is the Yajna which, as the Sukta says, the Devas, performed in the beginning of time.
The Purusha-Sukta is not merely this much. It is something more to the seeker. The above description should not lead us to the erroneous notion that God can be seen with the eyes, as we see a cow, for instance, though it is true that all things are the Purusha. It is to be remembered that the Purusha is not the 'seen' but the 'seer'. The point is simple to understand. When everything is the Purusha, where can there be an object to be seen? The apparently 'seen' objects are also the heads of the 'seeing' Purusha. There is thus, only the seer seeing himself without a seen.
Here, again, the seer's seeing of himself is not to be taken in the sense of a perception in space and time, for that would again be creating an object where it is not. It is the seer seeing himself not through eyes but in Consciousness. It is the absorption of all objectification in a Universal Be-ness. In this Meditation on the Purusha, which is the most normal thing that can ever be conceived, man realises God in the twinkling of a second.
Thousand-headed is the Purusha, thousand-eyed and thousand-legged. Enveloping the earth from all sides, He transcends it by ten fingers' length.
Note:- This is the first Mantra of the famous Purusha Sukta of the Veda. Here the transcendent totality of all creation is conceived as the Cosmic Person, the Universal Consciousness animating all manifestation. The word 'earth' is to be understood in the sense of all creation. 'Dasangulam' is interpreted as ten fingers' length, in which case it is said to refer to the distance of the heart from the navel, the former having been accepted as the seat of the Atma and the latter symbolic of the root of manifestation. The word ten is also said to mean 'infinity', as numbers are only up to nine and what is above is regarded as numberless.
All this (manifestation) is the Purusha alone - whatever was and whatever will be. He is the Lord of Immortality, for He transcends all in His Form as food (the universe). Such is His Glory; but greater still is the Purusha. One-fourth of Him all beings are, (while) three-fourth of Him rises above as the Immortal Being.
That, Three-footed (Immortal) Purusha stood above transcending (all things), and His one foot was this (world of becoming). Then He pervaded (everything) universally, the conscious as well as the unconscious. From That (Supreme Being) did the Cosmic Body (Virat) originate, and in this Cosmic Body did the Omnipresent Intelligence manifest itself. Having manifested Himself, He, appeared as, all diversity, and then as this earth and this body.
When (there being no external material other than the Purusha) the Devas performed a universal sacrifice (in contemplation by mind), with the Purusha Himself as the sacred offering, the spring season was the clarified butter, summer the fuel, autumn the oblation. They set up for sacrifice the Purusha as the object in their meditation, Him who was, prior to all creation, and they, the Devas, Sadhyas and Rishis, performed (this first sacrifice).
From that (Purusha), who was of the form of a Universal Sacrifice, the sacred mixture of curds and ghee (for oblation) was produced. (Then) He brought forth the aerial beings, the forest-dwelling animals, and also the domestic ones. From that (Purusha), who was the Universal Sacrifice, the Riks and the Samans were produced; from Him the metres (of the Mantras) were born; from Him the Yajus was born.
From Him were born horses and whatsoever animals have two rows of teeth. Verily, cows were born of Him; from Him were born goats and sheep. And when they contemplated the Purusha (as the Universal Sacrifice), into how many parts did they divide Him (in their meditations)? What was His mouth called, what His arms, what His thighs, what were His feet called?
The Brahmana (spiritual wisdom and splendour) was His Mouth; the Kshatriya (administrative and military prowess) His Arms became. His Thighs the Vaisya (commercial and business enterprise) was; of His Feet the Sudra (productive and sustaining force) was born. The Moon (symbol of the mind) was born from His (Cosmic) Mind; the Sun (symbol of self and consciousness) was born from His Eyes. Indra (power of grasping and activity) and Agni (will-force) came from His Mouth; from His Vital Energy air was born.
(In that Universal Meditation as Sacrifice) the firmament came from His Navel; the heavens were produced from His head; the earth from His feet; from His ears the quarters of space; - so they constituted the worlds. The enclosures of the sacrificial altar were seven (the seven metres like the Gayatri), and twenty-one (the twelve months, the five seasons, the three worlds and the sun) were the logs of sacrificial fuel, when the gods (the Pranas, senses and the mind) celebrated the universal sacrifice with the Supreme Purusha as the object of contemplation therein.
By sacrifice (universal meditation) did the gods adore and perform (visualise) the sacrifice (Universal Being). These were the original creations and the original laws (that sustain creation). Those great ones (the worshippers of the Cosmic Being by this type of meditation) attain that Supreme Abode in which abide the, primeval contemplators (the gods mentioned above) who thus worshipped that Being.
I know this Great Purusha who shines like the sun beyond darkness. By knowing Him alone does one cross beyond death; there is no other way of going over there.