Saturday, 10 January 2015
ఆచమనము అనే పదానికి ఉపస్పర్శం అంటే అరచేతిలో నీరు పోసుకొని నోటితో గ్రహించడమని అర్ధం. ఏదైనా ఒక పవిత్రమైన పని చేస్తున్నప్పుడు ఆచమనం చేయాలని శాస్త్రాలు చెబుతున్నాయి. మనస్సు, వాక్కు, శరీరం - అనే త్రికరణాల పవిత్రతకు ఆచమనం విధించబడినది. సంధ్యావందనం మొదలైన సమయాలలో ఆచమనానికి చాలా ప్రాముఖ్యమున్నది. ఆచమనం అంటే కేవలం ఒక ఉద్ధరణి నీళ్లు చేతిలో పోసుకొని లోపలికి పుచ్చుకోవడం మాత్రమే కాదు, మంత్ర పూత జలంతో శరీరాన్ని స్పర్శించడం, స్నానం చేయడం కూడా ఆచమనమే. ఆచమనం నాలుగు విధాలు. అవి : 1. శ్రుత్యాచమనం : స్వాధ్యాయ బ్రాహ్మణంలోని శ్రుతి ‘‘హస్తా వవవిజ్య రతిరాచమేత్...’’ అంటూ చేతులు కడుగుకొని, ‘‘ఓం కేశవాయ స్వాహా, ఓం నారాయణాయ స్వాహా, ఓం మాధవాయ స్వాహా’’ ఆని ఆచమనం చేయాలి. తరువాత రెండు చేతులను శుద్ధి చేసుకొని, ఉదకాన్ని స్పృశించి, కుడి చేతితో ఎడమ చేతిమీద, పాదాల మీద నీళ్లు చల్లుకోవాలి. శిరస్సు, నేత్రాలు, ముక్కు, చెవులు, హృదయ స్థానాలను తాకాలి. 2. శ్రౌతాచమనం : గాయత్రీ మంత్రంలోని మూడు పాదాలను విడివిడిగా స్వాహాకారంతో పఠిస్తూ, అంటే ఓమ్ తత్సవితుర్వరేణ్యగ్ స్వాహా, భర్గోదేవస్య ధీమహి స్వాహా, ధియో యోనః ప్రచోదయాత్ స్వాహా అని పలుకుతూ ఆచమించడం మొదలైన క్రియలు ఇందులో ఉన్నాయి. 3. స్మృత్యాచమనం/ స్మార్తాచమనం : పీట/ కృష్ణాజినం మీద కూర్చుని, పాదాలను నేలపై ఉంచి, ఆపస్తంబ సూత్ర సంప్రదాయంలో ఆచమించే పద్ధతి. బొటన వ్రేలితో పెదవులను తుడుచుకోవడం లాంటి క్రియలు ఇంకా ఉన్నాయి. 4. పురాణాచమనం : ముమ్మారు కేశవ నామాలతో ఆచమించడం, గోవిందాది నామాలతో అవయవ శుద్ధి మొదలైన క్రియలు ఇందులో ఉన్నాయి. శ్రుత్యాచమనం, శ్రౌతాచమనం ఒక్కటేనని కొందరి భావనగా దువ్వూరి రామకృష్ణారావుగారి సంపాద కత్వంలో వెలువడిన సంధ్యావందనం గ్రంథంలో వ్రాశారు. కావచ్చు. శ్రుతి, శ్రౌతం వేరు కావు.
శ్రుతి, స్మృతి, పురాణాలలో 3 రకాల ఆచమనాలు చెప్పబడ్డాయి.
శ్రుత్యాచమనం: గాయత్రీ మంత్రాన్ని ఉచ్ఛరిస్తూ చేసే ఆచమనం.
స్మృత్యాచమనం: ఆపస్తంబాది ఋషులు చెప్పిన విధానాన్ని అనుసరించి చేసే ఆచమనం.
పురాణాచమనం: కేశవాది నామోచ్ఛారణ చేస్తూ కావించే ఆచమనం.
Aachamana Vidhi - Concept and Significance...
In Hindu sampradaya any Nithya or Nymittika Karma always begins with a ritual called Aachamanam followed by Sankalpa which has religious and spiritual significance. Aachamanam is the simplest of Vaidika karmas yet none the less in importance than an Aswamedha Yaagam. Its importance can be well realized when we note that it forms the prelude to all the rituals; no Vedic karma begins without Aachamanam.
What is Aachamanam?
In simple terms the process of reciting the names of Supreme God (Maha Vishnu) while performing Jalapanam (sipping drops of water) as per Vedic scripts is called Aachamanam (Aachamana). It is a purification ritual wherein one sips water three times from the Brahma Theertha (base of the right thumb) while reciting divine names. It is done three times to make ourselves free from three shortcomings viz. Kayik (physical/bodily); Vachik (verbal) and Manasik (mental). One would have observed in a temple the priest offers theertha (sacred water) three times. Number three denotes Trinal lords (Brahma, Vishnu and Maheswara) who also represent the three Gunas Rajasa, Sattwa, and Thamasa. These gunas or states of mind are present in human beings also. Aachamanam is an act of purifying the inner body (soul) by sipping water while praying the supreme Lord, the Primordial Person Lord Vishnu the karaka for or existence.
Aachamana literally means to sip. But as a ritual of purification, it means to sip water three times from the right hand and then to touch the various sense organs and parts of the body while calling out the divine names. This form of purification is in vogue since time immemorial. The physical benefit of this exercise is that, by sipping water thrice the throat is cleared from Vata, Pitta and Kapha doshas and one is then able to chant the manthra or recite divine names clearly.
How to perform Aachamanam?
Simplest version of performing Aachamanam is, take a spoonful (Uddharani) of water poured into the cupped palm of the right hand, then recite "Kesavaaya Swaaha" and sip it without making noise with the Palm tipped back slightly from the base of the thumb in the name of Lord Kesava. The same act is performed for the second time reciting of "Narayanaya Swaaha" in the name of Lord Narayana. The act is performed a third time reciting "Madhavaya Swaaha" in the name of Lord Madhava.
Above act is followed by reciting the other 21 names of Lord Vishnu called Kesava Naamaas by touching various sensory organs and other parts of the body as given below…
Corresponding body part
1. Govindaya Namaha
2. Vishnave Namaha
Both the hands are washed
3. Madhusudhanaya Namaha
4. Thrivikramaya Namaha
Both the upper and lower lips are touched with the right hand fingers
5. Vaamanaya Namaha
6. Sridharaya Namaha
Left and right cheeks are touched
7. Hrusheekesaya Namaha
Hands are touched
8. Padmanabhaya Namaha
Sprinkle water on the feet
9. Damodaraya Namaha
Centre of the head is touched with the middle finger
10. Sankarshanaya Namaha
Nose edge is touched with the fist
11. Vasudevaya Namaha
12. Pradhyumnaya Namaha
Left and right nostrils are touched
13. Aniruddhaya Namaha
14. Purushottamaya Namaha
Right and left eyes are touched
15. Adhokshajaya Namaha
16. Narasimhaya Namaha
Right and left ears are touched
17. Achyutaya Namaha
Navel portion is touched
18. Janardhanaya Namaha
Chest is touched
19. Upendraya Namaha
Head is touched
20. Haraye Namaha
21. Sri Krishnaya Namaha
Right and left shoulders are touched
Types of Aachamanam...
Aachamanam could be of different types arising from different scriptures viz. Vaidika, Srauta, Smartha, Pouranic and Tantric based on the ceremony/ritual being performed and on the line of learning that is being followed. There can also be difference in the rules followed. The difference mainly lies mainly in the mantras recited. Reciting of manthras during Aachamana differs from place to place, region to region based on sampradaya. In some places we find people recite Achyutaya Namaha, Ananthaya Namaha, and Govindaya Namaha in the beginning while sipping water three times and thereafter 24 Kesava Nama are recited by touching the body parts with fingers. Generally family tradition is followed. Whatever may be the type of Aachamanam followed, it’s very objective is one and the same that is, purification of the body and mind. It is said that Aachamanam should be performed twice at the beginning of Sandhyavandana Kriya and once/twice at the end.
In practice we find there are two types of Aachamanam which are in vogue. They are, Srouthaachamanam and Pouranikaachamanam also called Smarthaachamanam. The one that is performed with Gayathri is called Srouthaachamanam and the one which is performed with Kesavadi Namas is called Pouranikaachamanam. Majority follow the system of Pouranikaachamanam. It is said that while performing Sandhyavandana Kriya one should follow the Pouranikaachamanam and while performing Brahma Yajna Srouthachaamanam should be followed.
Place & Posture… The place should be clean, free from any impure items. One should sit on an asana (mat) facing East or North in Padma or Swastika asana. Knees and feet should not be protruding. One should not stand while performing Aachamanam, but always in Kukkutasana (hen-like posture) sitting down with the soles of the feet firmly planted on the ground, the hands between the knees.
Hand configuration… The right hand should be held so that the forefinger, middle finger and ring finger are together and slightly bent upwards, while the little finger and the thumb are separated from the other three fingers.
Water… Water used for Aachamanam (sipping) should be pure, cool but not hot, without foam or stagnation bubbles, without foul odor or bad taste, untouched by fingernails or hair or any other impure items. Water of quantity to cover a grain of Urad Dal (Black gram) should be poured from the left hand by spoon (Uddharani) into the right palm. One should say the appropriate mantra and sip the water from the Brahma Theertha of the right hand without making noise.
It is said that a Brahmin should always perform Aachamanam using Brahma Theertha. He can also do it using Rishi theertha and Deva theertha but he should never do it using Pithru theertha. This classification is based on where we hold the water in the right hand. If we hold it just below the thumb it is Brahma Theertha. If it is held just below the little finger it is Rishi Theertha and at the edge of four fingers, then it is Deva theertha. If it is held between the thumb and the first finger it is called Pithru Theertha.
When to perform Aachamanam?
Though Aachamanam generally precedes all karmas, there are specific occasions when it is called for/prescribed. They are…
As a preliminary to all nithya and naimittika karmas like, Sandhyavandana, Devatha Archana, Brahma Yajna, Vedaadhyayana, Pithru Yajna (Sraddha/Tharpana), Manthra japa, Homa etc.
Immediately after waking up in the morning;
After urination and other forms of excretion;
After brushing one’s teeth;
Before and after taking bath;
After wearing clothes;
Before and after the meals;
Speaking with or touching unsuitable persons,
After telling a lie;
Before and after giving or accepting alms or donation;
After sneezing, shedding tears or blood;
Upon physical contact with women;
Before and after crossing a river
When not to perform Aachamanam?
Aachamanam is not to be done in a standing position.
Exception: one may perform Aachamanam while standing if one is in water which is above the knees but below the navel.
Aachamanam is not to be done facing west or south; always it should be facing east or north.
Aachamanam should not be done with impure or falling water as from a tap or rain, but usually with water from a river or tank, or from a vessel held in the left hand. When doing in a river or tank, the left hand should be touching the water.
It should not be performed casually, while speaking to others, by wearing a shirt or footwear; with a covered head; with laughter etc. It should be performed with devotion and with the consciousness that one is uttering the holy names of the Almighty which purify and protect.
Aachamanam should not be done wearing a Pavithra. While performing Aachamanam Pavithra should be kept in the gap between the right ear lobe and the head. This is perhaps meant to avoid the sharp ends of the Pavithra hurting the eyes.
When Aachamanam is forbidden?
Aachamanam is not to be done immediately after taking prasada or sipping theertha as these are holy and pure and the symbolic act of purifying oneself through Aachamanam insults their holiness.
Exemption from Aachamanam:
There is one more type of Aachamanam that is in vogue. It often happens that, though we need to purify ourselves through Aachamanam, no water may be available at that time and place. In such a situation the scripts prescribe an easy method of purification; that of touching the tip of the nose and then the right ear uttering Pranava mantra. It is based on the Scriptural texts which say that, Agni resides in the Brahmana’s nose tip and holy rivers like the Ganga in his right ear. Hence touching these two purifies a person immediately. One would have observed elders reciting names of God (Krishna, Govinda etc.) whenever they sneeze or yawn. Perhaps this is with respect to the above principle. It is to be noted that this short cut is to be adopted only when performing regular Aachamanam is not possible.
Significance of Aachamanam
Water is profusely glorified in Vedas and is used in Vedic rituals for sipping, touching to parts of the body, sprinkling over the body, and for bathing the body. Taking pure, cool water internally is purifying and invigorating both physically and mentally. When it is accompanied by utterance of the divine names of Lord Vishnu one becomes filled with spiritual qualities. Aachamanam is a standard form of purification, prerequisite for meditation, pooja, homa and other sacred activities.
A Brahmana becomes purified by performing Aachamanam if the water penetrates to the heart (i.e. by swallowing the water completely). A Kshathriya becomes purified by performing Aachamanam if the water reaches his throat. A Vysya becomes purified if the water reaches his palate (inside the mouth). A Sudra or a Woman becomes purified if the water touches his or her lips.
During Aachamanam one touches various parts of the body because in different organs of the body are located various energies and their deities. It is said that, as per Sage Sri Veda Vyasa, all the deities are propitiated by the intake of water with the Achyuta, Ananta and Govinda Nama. Wiping the lips pleases Ganga and Yamuna; while touching the eyes pleases Surya and Chandra. Similarly Aswini Devathas are propitiated by touching the nose, Agni and Vayu by the ears. With the Padmanabha manthra all the thirty-three crore Deities are pleased and the Paramatma by touching the head.
When manthra are recited/chanted lot of heat is produced in the body due to which the throat and the mouth can become dry. Aachamanam done three times aims at remedying this dryness. One need not drink mouthful of water in Aachamanam. One only needs to sip as much as is required to make the mouth and throat wet and reach the heart.
It is said that any ritual performed without Aachamanam and Sankalpa do not yield any results and is useless. All karmas performed without Aachamanam are destined to fail and would be futile.
“Anaachamyakritham yachha yachha sankalpa varjitham rakshasam thattbhavet.” It is said as per Sri Bhagavatha Purana that Lord Sri Krishna had observed these rituals very strictly in his daily routine and shown to the world the significance of Aachamanam and Sankalpa.
Significance of Aachamanam & 24 Kesava Namas...
Among the several thousand names of Lord Vishnu (Vishnu Sahasranama) these 24 names called Chaturvimshati Kesava Namas are very important. We recite 24 names of Lord Vishnu during Aachamanam the first three while sipping water and remaining 21 while touching the body parts. They are Kesava, Narayana, Madhava, Govinda, Vishnu, Madhusudhana, Trivikrama, Vamana, Sridhara, Hrusheekesa, Padmanabha, Damodara, Sankarushana, Vasudeva, Pradhyumna, Anirudhha, Purushottama, Adhokshaja, Naarasimha, Achyuta, Janardhana, Upendra, Hara, and Sri Krishna...
It is said that Manu Smruthi compares these 24 names of the Supreme God with 24 tattvas (elements) of creation with which the universe is formed. For example Kesava represents Avyaktha tattva, Narayana represents Mahatattva, Madhava represents Ahankara tattva, and Govinda represents Manotattva. Remaining twenty names represents Pancha Gnanendriyas (eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin), Pancha karmendriyas, (hands, legs, speech, and two excretory organs), Pancha Pranas (prana, apana, vyana, udana, and samana) and Pancha Bhoothas (sky, water, fire, air, and earth). It is believed that, the first three names Kesava, Narayana, Madhava are Tapatraya Nivarakas. These 24 names also represent the 24 syllables of Gayathri Manthra called Beejaksharas that have influence on the human body.
For performing any Kriya one should have Anthhakarana Suddhi (inner purity) that is possible only by praying God by reciting His divine names (manthras) and the process of Aachamanam is only meant for that purpose. By reciting 21 names a person is getting purified bodily and by reciting three names he is getting purified internally.
Reciting these names of Supreme God is the link for devotion as it cleanses the inner body of the human being that helps in attaining quick results. The name of God is so powerful that it has the capacity to vanquish any sins and desires. Whether it is done knowingly or unknowingly with or without understanding its meaning and significance, reciting divine name will never go a waste. Best example we find in the story of Ajaamila as given in Ajaamilopakhyanam of Sri MadBhagavatham where, Ajaamila chants unknowingly the name of Lord Narayana at the time of his death and gets rid of his sins. The one that is done by knowing its meaning and significance will not only eliminate the sins but also helps in gaining the divine knowledge that leads to ultimate salvation.
Aachamana Vidhi: (Rules for inner cleaning as said by sages…)
Wash your hands and legs and face, keep the sacred thread in normal position, and keeping both hands in between the knees, we have to do Aachamana. Then we have to clean the teeth. Make your right hand in the shape of the ear of the cow and take water three times. Then wipe your lips twice. Keeping the thumb and little finger open and folding the other three fingers, you have to drink the water. This is called the Aachamana method. Every time you have to take water sufficient to drown a single grain of black gram.
Aachamana should be done using Brahma theertha which is not hot, facing east or north. For getting clean we should bathe in water reaching up to the chest in case of Brahmins, reaching up to the neck in case of Kshatriya, reaching up to the mouth in case of Vysyas and reaching up to the bottom of the mouth in case of Shudhras and ladies.
Aachamana should not be done standing or firmly sitting or with hands held outside the knees. Immediately after meals Aachamana can be done sitting firmly on the earth. You should not Achamaneeyam with upper cloth worn on one side of the body or with cloth hiding the shoulders. It should also not be done without sacred thread, wearing dirty cloths and not tying the hair. All activities following such wrong Aachamana need to be repeated again. If Aachamana is done facing south or west, then we need to take bath again and perform Aachamanam again.
While doing Aachamana we have to touch water (pot or river) with the left hand. This is because in the left hand reside the twelve Adithyas as well as Varuna the lord of water. Water in the Bronze vessel, copper vessel and silver vessel is always pure. So you have to hold the Uddharani (ceremonial spoon) and take the water from the vessel and pour it in the right hand and do Aachamana. Taking it directly by the left hand is considered equivalent to drinking of Alcohol.
The water has to be taken after washing the hand and legs. The water that we see clearly should be used. The water which can just drown a black gram should be taken and it is sufficient if it reaches up to the chest. After the Aachamana, we have to close our lips and wipe the mouth by the base of the thumb twice. Then we have to touch the mouth by all fingers held together. It is said after this all organs should be touched by the fingers. We drink the water saying Achyuthaya Namaha, Ananthaya Namaha and Kesavaya Namaha and touch the organs using fingers chanting the 12 names of Vishnu.
Aachamana must be performed after bath, after taking food, after drinking fluids, after sneezing and after sleep. If during chanting of mantra, we happen to see anything dirty, Aachamana should be performed and chanting recommenced.
Manu and Parasara are of the opinion that the sacred waters of the river like Ganges, Sun, Varuna, Chandra, Fire and wind are always in the right ear of a Brahmin. If we are not able to do Aachamana, or if we are not able to get water for Aachamana when we have to do Aachamana, we need only to touch our right ear. This is equivalent to Aachamana. During meals, Homa, taking of alms, eating, or giving of alms, we need to perform Aachamana twice.
After eating mango, sugar cane piece, betel leaf and Soma Pana, there is no need to do Aachamanam. After taking the Vishnu Pada Theertha also Aachamana should not be performed.